population dynamics

what does population mean?
The number of people living in a place
The number of babies born per year per 1000 people
Death rate
The number of deaths per year per 1000 people
what is this graph called?[image]
A population Pyramid
What is meant by exponential growth?
the bigger it gets the faster it rises
What is the basic idea in Malthusian theory?
That population will be limited by available resources such as food. An environment can only support a finite number of people and eventually food shortages and disease will reduce the population
What is Boserup’s theory?

That as population causes pressure on resources people will invent technologies to fix the problem.


eg agricultural intensification has led to more crops being produced on same area of land

Name some Pro-natal policies
  • mother’s wage
  • extra child benefits
  • better materinty pay
  • banning contraception

Name some anti-natal policies
  • Free contraception
  • laws on numbers of children
  • reducing child benefits
  • education of women
  • fines
  • increasing legal age of marriage


which countries have used pro-natal policies to increase their population?


Sweden and Estonia
Which countries have used anti-natal policies to reduce their population?
China and Iran
How was the one child policy enforced?


Free child care, healthcare and education for first child.



Fines, forced abortion and sterilisation, councelling, written permission

Why might a rising population be a bad thing?

food shortage


pressure on benefits system

pressure on public services like schools


growing poverty

Why might a falling population be a problem?

not enough people to do work in factories

economic output falls

GDP declines

not enough people to defend the countrty from attack

not enough people paying tax to fund services

What is migration?
Moving from one place to another
Why do some countries want to control immigration?

to ensure the country doesn’t become over crowded

to ensure migrants entering the country can add to the economy.

To ensure there is sufficient jobs and homes for people.

How does the USA control immigration?

Visa must be obtained.


Quotas ( limited number of visas issued)675,000 P.A

Skilled workers given priority

Language restrictions

What is a refugee?
A person who has been forced to leave their home due to war or natural disaster or political persecution
What is the immigration policy for the Philippines?

to encourage emigration.

overseas employment program to help people find work.

Government encourages companies to recruit from Philippines.



What are the factors which reduce birth rates?



female education

rising incomes

What are the factors affecting death rates?

Health care


food production



What is meant by natural increase?

Birth rate minus the death rate.


Germany;BR= 8.1 , DR = 10.8, NI= -3


NB if more people are dying than are born the population will decrease but this figure is still referred to as rate of Natural Increase.

Is population generally increasing or decreasing in MEDCs?



Lower birth rates have led to a greying population.

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