Shanty Towns



The aim of the project was to replace hundreds of Favelas with low rise blocks or flats which could house 500 000 people. However the didn’t prove to be as successful as first thought.

Problems and implications of the project:

20% of people in Sao Paulo live in Favelas and half a million live on the streets. The scheme therefore would only help a small portion of people there.
– Many Favela people have occasional or no work, so couldn’t afford to buy a mortgage and maintain it on a flat.
– Land was cleared of existing Favelas and there was no guarantee of re-housing, some people were made homeless because of this.
  Many businesses were broken up from the development.
– Many people that lived in the Favelas previously had voted against the project.

A ‘Push Factor’
The problems and deprivations of the rural areas. Which push people away from poor rural areas. For example: Unemployment.
A ‘Pull Factor’
The attractions of the city, that draws people towards it. For example: Highier employment rates, and highier imcomes.

Case study – Brazil



Push Factors –

– Not enought food to go around

– Poor living conditions
– No sanitation/poor sanitation
– No running water/toilets
– Not making money from farming or poor quailty infertile soil
– Poor temperary housing

Pull Factors –

– Employment rates in the city

– Better housing in the city

– Many farmers have to move to the city for work
– Improved healthcare in the town and a better access to education.

Case Study – Kibera in Naurobi in Kenya
How it would feel to be there.

See – Flys, hens, animals, open drains, brown tin roofs, cockroaches, plastic bags for houses, crowded/packed together, dangerious dirty area.
Feel (thoughts) – Bad dream, nightmare, worried one day may be evicted, shared fear, sqashed together cramped, disappointed and guilty
Touch – Animal poo, hot damp rooms, cockroaches, dirty, humid weather, rough metal.
Hear – Screams, crys, children, animals around, noise, vehicles, thieves, singing and talking.
Smell – Open drains, animals, humid, animal poo, sewage, sweat, body odour, rubbish, decomposing rubbish.
Other Facts – Massive threat of disease, big families x7 kids, £68 deposit for a building and this had taken one person 2 years to gather, the average wage there is $250 per year.

Push Factors from Rural areas
– Conflicts and war –

Can result in huge refugee movements from the land. Oftern these people

Push Factors from Rural areas
– Healthcare and education –

To provision of healthcare and education tends to be less organised in rural areas than in urban areas. Remote villages in the high Andes and Ecuador, and villages in India have problems with too little medicine and too few qualified people.

Push Factors from rural areas

– Flooding –

Flooding displaces many people, and changes the landscape. Floods in 1999 and 2000 in Mozambique (East Africa) and in Bangladesh (Asia), destroyed the food crops for millions of people. In these circumstances people many have no option but to move into the city areas.

Push Factors from rural areas

– Decline of traditional village industries –

Such as in textiles and metal-working in some places means that some people have had to move to an urban area to look for work.
Pull Factors to cities
– Increases services –
There are more services and facilities and people think that they will be able to provide

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