Term 4 Geography

Geography
Disease
A condition that causes harm or interferes with the normal functioning of a living thing, generally caused by parasites and pathogenic micro-organisms or possibly due to environmental, nutritional or genetic factors
Epidemic
When a disease spreads rapidly and affects many people at much the same time, resulting in widespread infection. Influenza Epidemic in Australia 2007
Pandemic
When a disease is prevalent across a wide geographic area such as a country, region or even the world. Eg. The Black Plague
Endemic
When a disease is common to a specific locality, region or people. Eg. Malaria is endemic to many tropical countries such as Papua New Guinea.
What are the five main groups of organisms that cause infectious diseases
Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, Protozoans, Worms
Vector
An organism capable of carrying and transmitting a pathogenic bacterium or virus from one person to another. Can be mechanical – infectious agent outside the body of vector (eg. flys land on manure and then contaminate food) or biological -pathogens inside body (eg. when a mosquito passes on malaria through blood)
Geographic Pathology
The distribution of diseases Eg Is it localised, spread sparsely across a wide area, common only in certain places etc
STD’s
Transmmitted through sexual contact, breast feeding or needle sharing. Eg HIV, Syphilis, Gonorrhoea
Zoonotic Disease
A pathogenic organism or virus which orginates or lives in a other animal and transfers to people eg. AIDS, avian flu, swine flu. Able to stay dormant for some time
Anthropozoonotic Disease
One that is common to some groups of people but are able to affect animals also eg Tuberculosis, measles etc.
Air-borne disease
Occur when people breathe in bacteria or viruses attached to dust particles, smoke or water vapour, causing them to become ill. Eg. Tuberculosis, influenza
Water-borne diseases
Contracted from either drinking or accidentally swallowing contaminated water, or by eating food that has been prepared with unclean water. Occurs in places where sanitation and hygiene is poor or when pathogenic organisms from human or animal faeces find their way into the water supply eg. cholera, typhoid, polio
Deficiency Disease
A range of conditions that people acquire due to a lack of food or particular nutrients and vitamins. Eg. Anaemia (iron), scurvy (vitamin c)
Epidemiology
The area of medical studies that examines the incidence, possible sources and prevalence of infectious diseases in communities of people
Factors that control populations
-Geographical: Climate, topography, access to natural resources (water, soil, minerals, timber) and the impacts of natural disasters -Economic: The ability to extract resources, manufacture goods, produce food, contruct housing, design transport, house energy -Social: The ability to improve standards of living through enducation, health and employment -Political: effects of war, conflict and civil unrest -Developments in health car, medical services and the ability to fight disease.
****CASE STUDY: BUBONIC PLAGUE******
-Believed to have began in China. From 1347-1351 the Black Death s believe to have killed 1/3 of the earths total population. – Spread by bacteria which resided in infected rats and fleas. Because of poor hygiene, it was easy for fleas to live on people and infect them – Effects: Victims developed swelling under the armpits, red spots, aching, fever, often drove people insane. Cough up blood. Death – NO CURE – After the plague disappeared many regions suffered from food shortages due to lack of crops. High demand for labour as many young men died.
Factors contributing to disease
Phyiscal Factors: CLimate, water and soil, natural resources, natural disasters. Socio-Economic: Level of development, poverty, education and skills, technology, travel Lifestlye Factors: Diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, stress Political factors: Stable government, war and civil unrest, human rights, refugee movement
How is health and the well being of a nation a reflection of its development
Increased development facilitates an increase in the health and well being of a nation. For example, the Human Development Index (HDI) is calculated using 4 different factors, Gross domestic product (GDP), literacy rate, Life expectancy and infant mortality. These help indicate development yet are also clear indicators of health. Furthermore if a countries has a stable, expanding economy as well as high enrolment in education then knowledge is improved as well as medical practices.
What are the standard series of steps whereby organisms are infected by a disease to the point where they develop symptoms
1. Source of infection ( human, animal, wound) 2. Mode of Transmission (contact, air, water, vector) 3. Infection (entry of pathogens into the body) 4. Incubation period (period of time during which the pathogen multiplies) 5. Symptoms evident (effects on the body by which the disease is recognised) 6. Outcome (combatted by the immune system, sickness or death)
Non Infectious diseases
Not caused by a pathogen and cannot be passed from one person to another. INCLUDE – Hereditary: gene abnormalities – Nutritional disease: Inadequate diet – Physiological Malfunction: where organs fail as a result of a variety of factors – Environmental and chemical examples: Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, anaemia
Infectious diseases.
Can be passed from one person or animal to another through contact, usually by food, water, air or vector. Eg. Tuberculosis
Regions of the world where disease is prevalent? Identify for its distribution
Developing countries In developed countries human life expectancy is high due to a reduction in infectious diseases. DUE TO political, lifestlye, socio-economic and physical factors
Soil water and climate contribute to disease?
Many of tjhe worlds least developed countries are located in regions where extreme weather hazards occur. Beacuse the people of these regions are frequently at the mercy of these extremes the often rely on the generosity of wealthier countries to provide for both immediate and emergency assitance as well as rcovery aid. Inland areas often subject to tough conditions, water dries up, crops fail.
Connection between poverty and health
Many poor people suffer from malnutrition and are too weak to work. Inability to work means they can not earn wages. Without proper sustenance they are vulnerable to infectious diseases. Poor housing, overcrowding. Little sanitation and waster disposal facilities are non-existant, all of which promote the spread of disease
Spatial Epidemiology
The study of the incidence and distribution of disease in a particular region
Effects of climate change
Sea level rise, temperature change, precipitation change, increased climate variability, ozone decrease Effects: Heat related deaths, Air quality health effects, vector-borne diseases, skin cancers, food contamination, water related illnesses. Less land -> overcrowding -> increased spread of disease
Disease as a weapon
Catapulting bodies of those who had died from the plague over walls to infect inhabitants of cities, sending anthrax powder through the post to terrorise governments
Epidemiological transition
Changes in disease rates in society over time brought about by medical innovation in disease, sickness therapy and treatment resulting in population growth 1. The age of pestilence (disease) and famine: Mortality rates are high and fluctuating, preventing population growth, low life expectancy (20-40(. Eg. angola, sierra leone or THE MIDDLE AGES 2. The age of receding pandemics Mortality declines. Life expectancy rises (30-50 now) population growth. Eg. bangladesh, laos 3. The age of degenerative and man-made diseases: Mortality continues to decline, reaches low level. Life expectancy exceeds 50. 4. Birth and death rates both low, medical technology highly advanced. Life style diseases are the main killers
Refugees are susceptible to disease WHYFOSHAY??
forced to flee their home because of natural disasters, war, famine or political persecution Likely to have nutritional shortages and so are prone to disease. Forced to reside in temporary, overcrowded camps and become vulnerable to water-borne diseases which spread quickly due to poor sanitation
Diseases of excessive comfort
Behaviours: poor diet, excessive alcohol consumption, drug addiction, lack of exercise Risk factors: High blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, lack of sleep stress Lifestlye disease: Cardiovascular disease, strok, diabetes, cancer
*******case study: Cholera *********
Severe diarrhoeal disease that results in death within days. Caused by bacteria, vibrio cholerae which enters a person’s body through the ingestion of contaminated water. SYMPTOMS: starts with nausea, fever and vomiting, victims gradually develop severe diarrhoea, losing large amounts of fluid which results in the failure of the circulatory system. Thought to have originated in INdia and spread along the trade route. Common in developing countries, said to be the disease of the poor as outbreaks occur where there is substandard sanitation and low quality drinking water. Faecal contamination of water is the most common cause for outbreaks. Non-infectious but spreads quickly in certain conditions. Easily prevented if people have access to clean water
*******CASE STUDY : MALARIA***********
One of the oldest parasitic disease, thought to have been rampant for centuries in swamps around Rome. Means ‘bad air’. Currently infects up to 40% of the world’s population and endemic in at least 160 countries, worlds biggest killers one of. Female mosquito injects the protozoa into the human. Within days the protozoa enter the bloodstream. The body cannot cope, fecers, headaches. Organs are starved of oxygen as red blood cells are destroyed. Coma, death.;

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