Test 3- Russia

Geography
The World Island Theory
the idea that if one controls the Bosporus Strait one controls the world island
Heartland Theory
Macender
agreed with the World Island Theory but believed that one needed to control the heart of the world island
Soviet Union disproved this theory
Rimland Theory
Spiktman
the edge of the world island controls trade (pacific rim)
supported by the US
APEC
asian pacific economic corporation
Continentality
distance from the sea strongly affects the climate; demonstrated with Russia’s extreme cold winters and extreme hot summers
Principle of Distance Decay
space affects communication between humans; the further away from the center the poor the communication
Principle of Russification
uniting all 108 different racial groups in Russia under the “Russian” race
permafrost
extreme cold region mostly frozen all 12 months of the year; no buildings can be built here because the ground heaves.
Tundra
south of permafrost; 6 inches of thawed land; grass grows but no plants with roots, swampy, water sits
Taiga
south of tundra; thick forest; 75% of Russia
Steppe
south of taiga; semi arid grassland; no rain, excellent for wheat, Ukraine
Yakutsk Basin
rich in minerals- possesses almost every mineral that is known of
Central Siberian Plateau
rather high plateau
West Siberian Plateau
huge plain; part of the northern european plain
Ural Mountains
only interruption in northern european plain; border between Asia and Europe; older, smaller mountains
Northern European Plain
no natural borders which causes countless invasions;
Caucasus Mts
many different racial groups; fragmented zone; lots of fighting; muslim; 40-50 of Russia’s 108 racial groups
Lake Baykal
20% of the earth’s fresh water; more water than any other lake; extremely deep; many different unique plants and animals
Lena River
flows out of Lake Baykal to Arctic Ocean, frozen majority of the year, S to N, not good for traveling or trade
Ennisee River
flows S to N; not good for trade
Ob River
flows S to N; not good for trade
Volga River
mostly E to W; economic heart of Russia, good for transport, runs to Caspian Sea which is landlocked
Dawn River
runs into Black Sea; canal was built between Dawn and Vulga
City of Ladivostok
rim city; 12,000 miles from Moscow; Eastern major seaport, headquarters for navy; 2.5 million people, transiberian railroad
City of Yukutsk
major city in Yukutsk basin; major pollution
City of Irkuts
capital of E Siberia; lots of trees; used for prison of Russian rulers causing it to now be a very creative, diverse, and independent city; extremely beautiful
City of Novosibirsk
city of engineering; set up by communism, 3rd largest in Russia; capital of W Siberia
City of Yekaterinburg
capital of urul region; has the advantage of border protection; monument between Asia and Europe; mineral extraction, Boeing and other American companies
City of Nizhniy Novgorod
largest heavy industrial city in Russia; near Vulga river
City of Kazan
mongolian city; Taters; Muslim capital of Russia; large river port; helicopters
City of Samara
river port; agriculture production; in WWII females made tanks and aircrafts; now have rockets and space travel
City of Rostof
mouth of Dawn river; intellectual; Silicon valley
City of Mermansk
last part of gulf stream; nuclear submarines
City of Saint Petersburg
spectacular; was capital but switched by communists; famous 900 day siege during WWII, went from 4 million to 1.5 million
City of Moscow
capital; largest subway system; Slovaks who escaped Mongols and paid tribute; never surrendered to Germany
City of Volgograd
invaded by 2 million Germans but forced Germans to surrender; largest battle in history; used to be Stalingrad
fjord
a long, narrow, deep inlet of the sea between high cliffs, as in Norway and Iceland, typically formed by submergence of a glaciated valley.
glaciated valley
covered or having been covered by glaciers or ice sheets
terminal moraine
a mass of rocks and sediment deposited at the point of furthest advance of a glacier or ice sheet.

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