UCSB second midterm

Geography
definition of population geography
the study of the ways in which spatial variations in the distribution, composition, migration, and growth of populations are related to the nature of places
world population distribution
? Almost half the world’s population in the 2 concentrated pockets in Asia
? 1st reason is because land is only 29% of earth, almost everyone lives on land
? 2nd – 90% of the people live on about 20% of the land
? 3rd – only about 60% of land is permanently inhabited
3 major concentrations of population and top 10 countries
? Most populated countries in the world
• China, India, US, Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Russia, Japan
? 3 major concentrations
• Eastern Asia, South Asia, Europe
ecumene
Area of Earths surface inhabited permanently by humans
physical Earth factors related to distribution
? About 2/3 of earth’s population live within 300 miles of the ocean
? Arable land – good farming land (flat lands, valleys, flood plains)
? Climate
population density and elevation
population tends to be close to the ocean, thus lower elevation = higher pop density?
demography
the statistical study of human populations
measures of population change
crude birth rate, total fertility rate, replacement fertility rate (replacement rate), crude death rate, infant mortality; population (age-sex) pyramids
crude birth rate
# of live births per 1000 people, per year
total fertility rate
# of children the average woman has in her lifetime
• Things affecting fertility rate
o Social/cultural – how many kids does a typical family have
o Science/medicine
o Government policies
replacement fertility rate (replacement rate)
2.1-2.5 kids per woman in her lifetime
crude death rate
deaths per 1000 people, per year
infant mortality
• Mortality – age adjusted death rate
# of deaths before age 1 per 1000 live births
population (age-sex) pyramids, including some distinctive shapes and their meanings
A graphical device for seeing the age sex distribution of the population of a country
Typical types are stationary, constrictive, bulges or holes, pyramid
dependency ratio
ratio of young children/elderly people that are dependant vs. the working force who provides for themselves
demographic (hidden) momentum
a single/group of events does not immediately change pop growth or decline
cohorts
Demographic Change Equation—natural change, net migration
? Rate of natural change = rate of pop growth – rate of loss (%)
? Net migration change = people migrating in – people leaving
? P(2) = P(1) + B – D + I – O
• P(2) = final pop
• P(1) = starting pop
• B = birth
• D = death
• I = migration in
• O = migration out
world population growth—linear vs. exponential growth
linerar in the past when population was kept it check, exponetial w/ the industrial revolution ect.
biotic potential (“J-curve”) and carrying capacity (“S-curve”)
“J”
no limiting factors
• exponential growth
Growth at maximum fertility rate

“S”
limiting factors included
• Slope of line flattens out when capacity is reached

technological changes and carrying capacity
• Technological advances can increase carrying capacity
world history and pattern of growth rates, including current rates
? Jumps in population after big events
• Agricultural revolution, industrial revolution, medical revolution

Drops after catastrophic events (Large wars, plauge)

o Growth Now
? Estimated 1.23% pop growth this year
? Pop growth rate is slowing down
? Max worldwide growth rate was in 1960’s
? Majority of growth is in less developed countries, richer countries tend to have growth rates very close to 0

Demographic Transition Model
? Model of how pop growth or decline happens over time
? Talks about 4 stages (+ 1 more) of countries
• Stage 1 – death and birth rates fairly balanced, slow pop growth
• Stage 2–birth rate high, death rate declining, increasing pop growth
• Stage 3 – low death rate, birth rate declines, still pop growth
• Stage 4 – low birth and death rates, slow pop growth
• Stage 5 – birth rate below the low death rates, declining pop
Malthus’ An Essay on the Principle of Population
1798
book on need to limit pop growth
need-to-limit-growth arguments (Malthusian and neo-Malthusianism)
• Recourses are finite/limited
• Food production can only increase linearly
• Optimal maximum population – “carrying capacity”
• Malthusiansim, neomalthusianism
ZPG
Zero population growth, just replacement rate
calculating the carrying capacity
based on limiting factors (food, land, water, ect.)
no-need-to-limit-growth arguments
? Food growth doesn’t have to be linear, technology
? People have been regulating population growth rates
? God’s job to regulate population growth
? New pop = technological innovation
? Higher pop = larger work forces, larger group of consumers
? No lack of food, distribution problem
? Overpop = regional, not global
scales of migration (total and partial displacement, external and internal migration)
o Varying Scales of Migration
• Total vs. Partial displacement
• Total displacement migration = new activity space doesn’t overlap at all w/ old activity space
o External migration = out of country
o Internal migration = stay in country
• Partial displacement migration = new activity space has some overlap w/ old activity space
channelized migration and migration streams
o Channelized Migration (Migration Streams)
• More migration to certain places than would be predicted by a gravity model
• Migration streams = the extra migration than what predicted
o There are streams to the south, but also out of it
counterstream migration
African American internal migration in 20th c.
• Blacks all leave south when cotton pickers invented, many moving back to urban south
motivations to migrate: continuum of forcedvoluntary motivations
o Forced Voluntary Continuum
• Trail of tears – Indians from Florida to Oklahoma
• Slave trade
• Blacks all leave south when cotton pickers invented, many moving back to urban south
African slave trade
large numbers of migrating people into other countries out of Africa
American Indian ‘Trail of Tears’
• Trail of tears – Indians from Florida to Oklahoma
push(-) and pull(+) factors
• Push – bad things making you want to leave
• Pollution, war
• Pull – things making you want to come
• Good job, nice climate, family
• Life events
anticipated place utility
o Anticipated Place Utility
• How you expect a place meet your needs, satisfy you, etc.
refugees
people fleeing from something in there country, causes mass migration
spatial search and choice models
• Chart from lecture 9
definition of economics
A study of production, distribution, and consumption of comodities
commodities
goods and services
subsistence, commercial (market), planned economies
subsistence – when preforming economic activities for your immediate social group, little accumulated wealth

Commercial (market) – buying and selling, price and production can vary, guided by a profit motive

planned economics – controlled or influenced by the govt

market control mechanism
Supply demand price – lecture 10 chart*
supply-demand curves
market equilibrium
When supply = demand
assumption of economically rational behavior
1. Economic agents are motivated by maximizing economic utility (higher revenue lower cost)

2. Economic agents have complete and accurate knowledge relevent to economic decisions

categories (sectors) of economic activities: primary
Agriculture, gathering industries (fishing), extractive industries (mining)
categories (sectors) of economic activities: secondary
Manufacturing, processing, construction, power production
categories (sectors) of economic activities: tertiary
retail and wholesale, personal and public services, transportation and communication
categories (sectors) of economic activities: quaternary
information, research, education, management
categories (sectors) of economic activities: quinary
executive decision-making
ways location affects economic activities
sub-distance, market – location affects supply and demand
explanatory vs. normative models
explanatory – shows what is

normative – shows what should be (huff model)

spatially fixed and variable costs (basic and locational costs)
fixed – basic (energy, rent, ect.)
variable – locational (taxes changing place to place, variable labor costs)
behavioral approach to economic geography
Economic maximization is not the only motivator: tradition, likes and dislikes are motivators
hunting and gathering
? Tough way to make it
? Gathering provides more food than hunting
? Hard to support a lot of people
? Much less than 1% now lives by this method
sex-role division of labor
sex-role division of labor
origins of agriculture (first agricultural revolution)
? End of the last ice age, 8-10k B.C.
agricultural hearths
culture hearth where many agricultural innovations came
vegetative and seed planting
2 ways to do agriculture, seed = putting seed in ground, vegetative = cutting the plant and planting that into the ground
hybridization
mixing plants to get ideal traits
animal domestication (herding)
? Animals who were originally domesticated were pets/religious symbols, not food

eventually bred animals specifically for eating

Sauer’s Agricultural Origins and Dispersal
book on where agriculture started and it spreading
innovations in agriculture
? Hybridizing plants/animals
? Irrigation
? Metal Plows – iron ? steel
? Chemicals
• Fertilizer
• Pesticides
• herbicides
Green Revolution (third agricultural revolution)
• New strains developed that grow in harsh growing conditions
• Send these new strains to Africa, Asia, and Latin America underdeveloped countries
biotechnology
directly altering genetic code for better plants
smart agriculture
using GPS & GIS to optimize growing and use of chemicals (micro monitoring fields)
extensive vs. intensive agriculture
? Extensive – low cost, low profit
• Small about of labor, and other financial investments per acre/area
• Produces less valuable products
• Can take place on lower quality farm land/climate
• Supports fewer people per acre
? Intensive – high cost, high profit
• High cost per acre
• Lots of labor, and/or irrigation, chemicals
• Produces more valuable products
• Requires better conditions
• Supports higher # of people
subsistence, commercial, planned agriculture
o Subsistence Agriculture (you and your family survive off of what you grow)
o Commercial Agriculture (off farm sale)
? Extensive growing
• Range livestock, grains
• Less costly to transport
? Intensive growing
• California excels at this like now other
• Flowers, strawberries, grapes, broccoli, avocados, dairy, grain fed livestock
? Increasingly mechanized
planned – introducing agriculture into less developed countries?
shifting cultivation
• Primarily in rain forests
• Cut down and burn plants to put nutrients back into soil
nomadic herding (nomadism)
• In areas with worst soil in world

travel around with a herd to eat/sell/trade travel for their grazing

rice
primary sustinence crop that is intensive
truck farming
using the bed of a truck to farm in
agribusiness
corporation in farming business
price supports
govt setting minimum price to make sure farmers can make profit
von Thunen model
o What to Grow Where? Model of land use purely based on economic geography
o Assumptions
? Isolated state
? Isotropic plain
? 1 transport mode, cost up with distance
? Economic rational
land rent (locational rent)
o Land Rent Varies With Distance From Market Town
? Intensive farming most profitable close to market
? Extensive farming more profitable farm (cheaper to transport)
concentric ring pattern
o Pattern of Concentric Rings Around Market Town
? Dairying and market gardening
? Specialty farming
? Cash grain and livestock
? Mixed farming
? Extensive grain farming or stock raising
margin of cultivation
the area where a certain type of agriculture is profitable
relaxing von Thunen’s assumptions
? If transport paths made available certain places farther away are technically “closer”, etc.
monoculture
plantation agriculture
cottage and guild industries
o Cottage and Guild Industries
• Small home based manufacturing by untrained specialists
• Guild – self-regulating association of skilled craftsmen
origin and diffusion of Industrial Revolution
o Industrial Revolution, England (Mid 1700’s)
• Fuels will replace human and animal power
• Cotton textiles were the first to industrialize
o Diffusion of Industrial Revolution
• Tried to prevent it with secrecy, wanted to control markets, etc.
o Industrial Revolution, England (Mid 1700’s)
• Fuels will replace human and animal power
• Cotton textiles were the first to industrialize
break-of-bulk points
Weber’s cost-minimization approach to factory location
o Transport of Resource (Raw Materials) to Factory, Product to Market
• Closer to raw materials usually means farther from market
material index
• MI = weight of localized raw materials / weight of finished product
• Best place for factory is where the total distance to each of the materials locations is minimalized if MI = 1
localized and ubiquitous raw materials
• Ubiquitous raw materials – raw materials that are pretty much everywhere
• Not relevant to factory location because they are always available
raw-material (resource) orientation
market orientation
characteristics of materials or products other than weight that are relevant to factory location
o Not Just Weight Change to Materials
• Weight Gain
• Perishable
• Bulky
• Can be for market or raw material orientation for each of these
spatial median
• Spatial median – location that minimizes the sum of the distances to all other points
o Best spatial median is with a weighted spatial median
• Heavier materials pull more
location allocation problem
space-cost functions
o General Space-Cost Functions
• Costs go up in certain area
• Profit is based on revenue – costs
• Its only profitable to do business in areas where your costs will be below you revenue
externalities
costs or saving not resulting DIRECTLY from the activity of a particular economic agent
Not due to 1 company but to all companies in that industry(localization economies)or in that region(urbanization ecoomies)
linkages
‘No industry is an island;
From perspective of manufacturer there are backward and foreward links
ancillary activities
Business or non-trade activity that is not associated with the core activities of a firm.
agglomeration economies and diseconomies
The spatial grouping of people or activites for mutual benefit
advantages – shared work force, auxilary service providers and suppliers
specialized regions developed around industrys
disadvantages – compitition for recources and labor force
population and congestion
additional costs for agglomeration, ie land value going up
industrial “parks”
buisnesses grouped together in tight proximity
urban economies
globalization of manufacturing (transnational and conglomerate corporations)
o Transnational & Conglomerate Corporations
• Do lots of different money making activities
• Sell multiple different products
maquiladora operations
• Businesses in Mexico that are operated by US
• These are located only the US – Mexico border
• Zona libra
• 12 mile buffer in northern Mexico on the border, where factories located in there are treated like US domestic companies
NAFTA and CAFTA
• Extended by NAFTA to all of Mexico in mid-1990’s
• About 3000 factories right here
• Huge portion of Mexico’s industrial output
changing structure of workforce in U.S.A
o Labor Shifts Across Sectors
? Mid 1800’s large majority primary workers 66%
? Secondary rises in the middle then comes back down
? Drifted to current day 83% tertiary +, 16% secondary, 1 % primary
reasons for shifts
? Mechanization
• Machines can do the work of multiple people in the same amount of time
? Economic Globalization
• Outsourcing
• Import cheap labor
? Wealth + education
• Nobody wants to do the tasks that are menial labor
• Tourism + luxury goods has exploded because people have money to spend
? public sector (government)
• At all levels government has grown (local, state, national, international)
• Government is a major supplier of jobs
outsourcing
sending work out of country for cheaper labor
Hotelling’s Locational Interdependence model of retail location
? Location allocation model
? Other companies around you determine best market area for your business
elastic and inelastic demand
• Elastic – price goes up, demand goes down
• Inelastic – price goes up, demand stays high (gas, diamonds, gold)
foot-loose industries
? Do not have much spatially variable costs
? Location doesn’t matter as much for sales
? Example: mail order companies, catalog companies, internet based co.’s
spectator entertainment
sports, Movies, plays, vegas shows
tourism
? Travel for entertainment or vacation
? World’s largest private industry
ecotourism
tourism that is designed to not harm the enviornment, becoming very popular
legal gambling (gaming) in the U.S
? More money in US is now spent than on recorded music, sports, non-sports entertainment, video games combined

lottery very common form

offshore gambling
? Can dock casino boats in international waters
? River boat casinos in Iowa
American Indian gaming
? Biggest form is casino gambling on Native American reservations
Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988
• National Indian Gaming Commission
• Indian Casinos bring in more revenue than the state of Nevada
• 400 casinos, 200 tribes
definition and characteristics of development
? Material condition of inhabitants and extent to which regions recourses are brought into full productive use
? Modernization and urbanization
? Particular social, cultural, and political changes
? Large amount of capital or wealth
? High production and consumption
indicators or measures of development: economic and noneconomic (demographic and human welfare) indicators
o Economic Indicators of Development
? Gross domestic product/income (GDP/GDI) vs. gross national product/income (GNP/GNI)
? % Labor force in Agriculture
? Energy use per capita
? Worker productivity
? Availability of Consumer Goods
o Non-economic indicators
? Demographic
• Fertility rate
• Death rate
• Infant mortality
? Human Welfare
• Adult literacy and education
• Caloric Intake
• Access to safe water
• Availability of medical recourses
• Availability of public assistance
GDP (GDI) vs. GNP (GNI)
• GDP = wealth generated within a countries borders no matter who earned
• GNP = wealth generated by Americans/American companies no matter where they do it
purchasing power parity (PPP)
aggregate (multivariate) measures of development
you cant directly measure development, all the indicators can change seperately so its subjective
Human Development Index of the U.N.
way of deviding the countries of the world into development levels
gross national happiness (GNH)
? The concept of measuring happiness as an indicator of development
? Bhutan’s king came up with this in 1972
four core ideas of GNH
• Promotion of sustainable development
• Preservation and promotion of cultural values
• Conservation of natural environment
• Establishment of good governance
north-south line
division of the world, north developed, south undeveloped (wraps around to include australia + new zealand
more developed and less developed countries (know general world patterns)
? MDC
• US, Canada, western Europe, japan, Australia, New Zealand (north)
? LDC
• (south) sub-Saharan Africa, south America, asia, eastern europe
core/periphery/semi-periphery
on north polar projection, core = MDC, periphery = LDC
trickle-down effects
innovations in the MDC’s eventually get passed down to the LDC’s?
technology transfer
technologies are passed to other countires? (LDC’s)
women and development
? In developed countries women are becoming more nearly equal to Men
? Literacy, wages, employment %, Life expectancy
reasons for historical emergence of Western European core
? Physical Factors
• Near equator it’s too hot so people become lazy
? Technological innovation
• Transportation, communication, military, Utility machines
? Cultural Belief systems
• Protestant devotion
o Part of religion is about being hard working and doing things to honor god
? Business/finance
• Liberalism
o Places where this is the core basis for society are rich
? Exploration, Colonialism, Imperialism
theories of development: modernization
linear development, traditional -> pre conditions for take off -> take off -> drive to maturity -> high mass consumption -> post-industrial
theories of development: dependency
resources flow from a “periphery” of poor and underdeveloped states to a “core” of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former
theories of development: neoliberal counterrevolution
theories of development: sustainable development
resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for generations to come
definition and varieties of cities
• WHAT ARE CITIESo Varieties of Urban Areas
o Metropolitan Areas
megacities
functions of cities
easier trade, agglomeration…?
Metropolitan (Statistical) Areas (MSA)
• MSA (micro/metropolitan statistical area)
• At least 1 county
• Large pop concentration + adjacent communities
conurbation (Consolidated MSA)
• CMSA(consolidated metropolitan statistical area) (conurbation)
• Fused large cities
• Largest is megalopolis (above Boston down to below D.C.)
Megalopolis
Ranges from Boston all the way down to D.C.
istorical origins of urban centers (when, where, why)
o Historical Origins of Urban Areas
• Agriculture
• Constant food supply
• Control of water
• Accumulation of material
• Stratified society
• Defense
• Trade
• Religious functions
• 1st cities – Mesopotamia 4000-5000 BC(Iraq), Nile Valley 3500 BC, west Africa
worldwide urbanization trend
o Worldwide Urbanization Trend
• Higher proportion of people living in urban areas now
• Bigger and growing cities
• Shanty towns – things on outsides of large underdeveloped cities
• Result of over urbanization
today’s largest cities and fastest growing large cities
informal housing (squatter settlements)
• Shanty towns – things on outsides of large underdeveloped cities
• Result of over urbanization
basic and nonbasic industries
o Basic and Nonbasic industries
• Read book
• Basic – brings in money from outside the city
• Nonbasic – money inside the city moved to someone else in the city
regional multiplier
Christaller’s Central Place Theory
• CHRISTALLER’S CENTRAL PLACE THEORY
o Pattern of Urban Systems in a Region
• More spread out than random
settlements (central places) and hinterlands (market areas)
market area tessellation
o Tessellate Region into Market Area Polygons
• Divide the area up into shapes into tiled area
• Regular array causes hexagonal
• Always convex
regular market area polygons (hexagons)
o Urban Hierarchy of Places, Polygons
• Order of commodities
• Threshold = # of people in market area required to support a commodity
• Range = how far people are willing to travel to buy the commodity
o Low order = small threshold, short range
o High order = large threshold, long range
• With different size cities polygons form within polygons (see pic)
irregular market area polygons
When compeating companies/cities are of diffrent sizes or spaced out unevenly they have diffrent size pulls causing the polygons to not all the same size/shape
convex Voronoi polygons
polygons for market areas are always convex instead of concave
hierarchical nesting of central places and polygons (urban hierarchy)
hierarchical nesting of central places and polygons (urban hierarchy)
orders of central places and their commodities
• Order of commodities
• Threshold = # of people in market area required to support a commodity
• Range = how far people are willing to travel to buy the commodity
o Low order = small threshold, short range
o High order = large threshold, long range
commodity threshold and range
• Threshold = # of people in market area required to support a commodity
• Range = how far people are willing to travel to buy the commodity
effect of accessibility and land value on the internal structure of North American cities
o Accessibility and Land Value
• The most accessible locations (area closest to the core of the city), the more valuable the land is
• Most accessible locations demand the highest rent
• Land value decreases as you leave the center of the city, distance decay
• Intensive to extensive urban land use
intensive and extensive landuse in cities
land closer to CBD is more expensive and thus more proper for intensive activities, the farther you get from the CBD the more extensive the land use becomes
Central Business District (CBD)
o Urban Nucleus: Central Business District (CBD)
• Core/most intensive land use is the nucleus (known as the CBD)
pattern of population density in cities
• LAND USE/DEMOGRAPHIC PATTERNS (SOCIAL AREAS)
• CBD Has low population density because people can’t afford to live there
• Pop density curve as you get farther from the CBD is concave down, starting rising then decreasing, switches to concave up but still decreasing
• Often divided by social status, family status, ethnic status, ect.
modal ring shift
• Modal ring = ring of highest pop density around the city center
• Has been showing a pattern of shifting outward
urban landuse/demographic patterns (social space): sectors, concentric circles, multiple nuclei
land in cities is used like with agriculture, intensive to more extensive the farther you get
concentric circles -> circles from the CBD where certain activites happen most often
multiple nuclei can change the circle patern
suburbanization
• SUBURBANIZATION – MOVEMENT FROM CENTER
role of transit in suburbanization
o Role of Transit Mid 19th, Early 20th Century
• Light rail (street cars) – allowed some suburbanization to begin
reasons for post-WWII increase in U.S. suburbanization
o Big Increase After WWII
• Reasons:
• Ascendancy of the automobile (and highway system)
• Reduction of work week
• Flight of industry to cheaper periphery
• Government-sponsored housing loans
o Only we’re allowed to be used on building new homes
• Baby boom
• New values and attitudes
problems of suburbanization
o Problems of Suburbanization
• Deterioration of the inner city
• Urban underclass
• Decline in mass transit > automobile congestion
• Dependence of oil
• Cost of maintaining highways
• Sprawling development
• Loss of farmland
• Homogenization of the built environment
• Everywhere in the USA has the same things (target, starbucks, best buy, Wal-Mart)
• Edge Cities
• People live on edge of cities by highways
suburbs as bedroom communities
edge cities (urban realm)
• Edge Cities
• People live on edge of cities by highways
exurbia (counter-urbanization)
o Exturbia
• Counter urbanization trend
• People living in wilderness/rural areas
• gentrification
gentrification and demographic inversion
census tract
small areas created by the census of ~4000 people
infill development
mixed-use development
zoning
laws set up to tell you what can be built where, certain zones are commercial, some are residential, some are farming, etc.

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