Unit 1 Chapt 1, 2 & 3

Geography
geography
the study of the Earth in all its variety
environment
humans’ natural surroundings
GIS
computer software used to map the Earth
artifacts
tools and pottery from the past
fossils
human remains
regions
areas that share some common characteristics
landforms
individual features of the land
emigrate
to leave the country born in and move to another
free enterprise
right to own property or businesses and to make a profit without government interfering
language
The strongest unifying force in a culture
population density
average number of people living in a square mile
minority group
people in a society that do not control most of the wealth and power
representative democracy
form of limited government
economics
the study of the production, distribution, and use of goods and services
economy
a system for producing, distributing, and consuming goods and services
traditional economy
this type of economy is based on customs and traditions; they generally share the goods and services with all the members of the ecomomy such as hunting and gathering
command economy
In the pure form of this type of economy, the government decides what goods are made and how they will be made
market economy
in the pure form of this type of economy, people are free to exchange goods and services without government involvement or regulation
mixed economy
this type of economy has elements of the other three main types of economies
trade barriers
anything that limits trade
tariff
a tax on imports
quota
a limit on the number of goods that can be imported from a country
embargo
a ban on trade with a certain country such as US and Cuba
famine
a lack of food
urban sprawl
expansion of city boundaries
urbanization
moving from villages/farms to cities
supply and demand
how prices are determined in a market economy
rights
benefits and protections guaranteed by law
responsibilities
duties that you owe to other citizens and your government
civilization
highly developed culture
ethnic group
group of people who share a common history, language, religion, and some physical characteristics
cultural diffusion
process of spreading new knowledge and skills to other cultures
emigrants
people who leave their country and move to another
birthrate
average number of births for every 1,000 people
refugees
people forced to flee from their countries
urbanization
people’s movement to cities
death rate
number of deaths for every 1,000 people
limited government
all citizens and government leaders must obey laws of the land
unlimited government
rulers have powers that are not limited by laws
interdependence
situation in which countries depend on one another for goods, raw materials to make goods, and markets for which to sell goods
globalization
development of a world culture and an interdependent economy
democracy
power rests with people of the nation

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