Unit 3 Vocab

Geography
Acculturation
The adoption of cultural traits, such as language, by one group under the influence of another.
Animism
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life
Artifact
An item from the past (such as a dinosaur bone, or something made by human’s in the past.
Assimilation
the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another
Baha’i
Started in Iran in 1800s. Bahai is based on two people. Bahai doesn’t take the Qur’an literally. They don’t believe in angels or devils. heaven or hell are not places they are condition of the soul. All religions come from the same source.
Behaviors
Observable actions of responses of humans or animals
Beliefs
specific ideas that people hold to be true
Bilingualism
The acquisition of two languages that use different speech sounds, vocabularies, and grammatical rules.
Buddhism
a world religion or philosophy based on the teaching of the Buddha and holding that a state of enlightenment can be attained by suppressing worldly desire
Confucianism
The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
contagious diffusion
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
creole
a mother tongue that originates from contact between two languages
cultural determinism
Cultural determinism is the belief that the culture in which we are raised determines who we are at emotional and behavioral levels. This supports the theory that environmental influences dominate who we are instead of biologically inherited traits.
cultural diffusion
the spread of cultural elements from one society to another
cultural ecology
Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.
Cultural geography
The subfield of human geography that looks at how cultures vary over space.
Cultural hearths
Heartland, source area, innovation center, place of origin of a major culture
Cultural landscape
the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape
Cultural relativism
the practice of judging a culture by its own standards
Cultural transmission
the process by which one generation passes culture to the next
Culture Complex
A related set of culture traits descriptive of one aspect of a society’s behavior or activity (may be assoc. with religious beliefs or business practices).
Culture Region
An area in which people have many shared culture traits
Culture system
A collection of interacting elements taken together shape a group’s collective identity. Includes traits, territorial affiliation, shared history, and more complex elements, like language
Culture trait
A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban.
Daoism
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
dialect
a regional variety of a language, with differences in vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation; also a form of a language spoken by members of a particular social class or profession
diasporas
the migration of religious or ethnic groups to foreign lands despite their continued affiliation with the land and customs of their origin
Eastern Orthodox
derived from the Byzantine Church and adhering to Byzantine rites
environmental determinism
the view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life including cultural development
ethnic religion
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.
ethnocentrism
belief in the superiority of one’s own ethnic group
extinct language
A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.
folk culture
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
folk culture region
When many people who live in a land space share at least some of the same folk customs.
folk life
the composite culture, both material and non-material, that shapes the lives of folk societies
geographic region
a demarcated area of the Earth
Hagerstrand, Torste
A famous geographer that wrote about cultural diffusion about the same time as Carl sauer
hierarchical diffusion
The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places
Hinduism
a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme beingof many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth
humanism
the doctrine emphasizing a person’s capacity for self-realization through reason
independent inventions
the term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other
Indo-European language family
Family of languages with the greatest number of speakers, spoken in most of Europe and areas of European settlement and in much of southwestern and southern Asia.
Islam
the religion of Muslims collectively which governs their civilization and way of life
isogloss
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
Judaism
the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud
language
the mental faculty or power of vocal communication
language families
Group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin
language sub-family
group of languages with more commonality than a language family (indicates they have branched off more recently in history)
lingua franca
a common language used by speakers of different languages
linguistic fragmentation
Many languages spoken by a small group of people.
linguistic geography
the study of the geographical distribution of linguistic features
Mahayana
one of two great schools of Buddhist doctrine emphasizing a common search for universal salvation especially through faith alone
Marxism
the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
material culture
The physical manifestations of human activities; includes tools ,campsites, art, and structures. The most durable aspects of culture
migrant diffusion
spread of an idea through people, in which the phenomena weakens or dies out at its previous source … moves like a “Slinky” (e.g., spread of the Spanish Flu toward the end of World War I).
monotheistic religion
a religion with one god
multilingualism
common use of two or more languages in a society or country
non-material culture
Human creations, such as values, norms, knowledge, systems of government, language, and so on, that are not embodied in physical objects
norms
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
official language
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
pidgin
an artificial language used for trade between speakers of different languages
Protestants
reformers who protested some practices of the catholic church
regional identity
an awareness of being a part of a group of people living in a culture region
relocation diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
Roman Catholics
This branch of Christianity arose because of the Roman’s split by Diocletian.
Sauer, Carl
He wrote about diffusion in Agriculural Origins and Dispersals.
shamanism
an animistic religion of northern Asia having the belief that the mediation between the visible and the spirit worlds is effected by shamans
Shiite
a member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs
Sikhism
the doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam
standard language
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
stimulus diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
Sunni
one of the two main branches of orthodox Islam
symbolic landscape
smaller landscapes that symbolize a bigger area or category. iconic landscapes, i.e. the state capitol symbolizes WI. every landscape can symbolize something, but these are focal points for people’s attention
symbols
designs that stand for other things or ideas
syncretism
the fusion of originally different inflected forms (resulting in a reduction in the use of inflections)
Tantrayana
The Buddhist yana whose path is the transformation of neurotically confused emotions into their enlightened equivalents.
time-distance decay
The declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or source.
toponymy
the branch of lexicology that studies the place names of a region or a language
traditional religion
a religion that has originality and is not modernized
transculturation
cultural borrowing that occurs when different cultures of approximately equal complexity and technological level come into close contact
universalizing religion
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *