Unit Six Vocabulary

Geography
Acid Rain
forms when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the atmosphere by burning fossils fuels
Agglomeration
If several industries cluster in one city they can provide support by sharing talents, services, and facilities.
Break-of-Bulk
Transfer of cargo from one type of carrier to another, from ships to trains and trucks and vise versa
Bulk reducing Industries
Such as the North American copper industry, usually locate factorizes close to raw material because the raw material are heavier and bulkier than the finished product.
Bulk- Gaining Industries
Such as most canned food and beverages products, factory locations are usually determined by accessibility to the market
Capitalist World Economy
A global economic system that is based in high-income nations with market economies
Conglomerate Corporations
Compromised of many smaller firms that support the overall industry.
Deglomeration
The exodus of businesses from a crowded area.
Deindustralization
During the past few decades employment in manufacturing as a share of total employment has fallen dramatically in the more developed countries a phenomenon widely
Dependency Theory
This analysis puts primary responsibility for global poverty on rich nations.
Distance Decay
Largely because pf the fiction of distance industries are more likely to serve markets of nearby places than those far away.
Economic Development
The process of improving the material conditions of people through diffusion of Knowledge and technology, has occurred as a result of industrialization
Economic Geography
A discipline that studies the impact of economic activities on the landscape and investigates reasons behind the locations of economic.
Export-Oriented Industrialization
A strategy that seeks to directly intergrate to countty’s economy into the global economy by concentrating on economic production that can find a place in international markets.
Footloose Industry
Neither resource or market oriented
Fossil Fuels
including coal, petroleum, and natural gas are residues of plants and animals that were buried millions of years ago.
Global Warming
the increased in earths temperature caused primarily by the burning of fossil fuel.
GDP
A measure of the average persons contribution to generation to generating a county’s wealth in a year.
GDP Per Capita
Is the value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country during a year.
Industrialization Revolution
Began this process in England during the late 19th century.
Infrastructure
Services that support economic activities.
International Division of Labor
In which some components of products are made in one country and others in another.
Kanto Plain
Japan’s dominant region of industry is the Kanto Plain, which includes TOKYO and other nearby cities and suburbs that form a huge metropolitan
Labor Intensive
such as fiber-spinning, weaving or cutting and sewing fabric into clothing
Location theory
Explains the locational pattern of economic activities by identifying factors that influence this pattern.
Locational Independence theory
The influence on a firm location decision by locations chosen by its competitors.
Maquiladora district
district have produced goods primarily for consumers in the U.S and a number of U.S companies have established plant in the zone to transfer imported duty-free components or raw materials into finished industrial products.
Meji Restoration modernization model
A remarkable government- sponsored campaign for modernization and colonization.
NAFTA
A treaty signed by 1995 by Mexico, the united states and Canada which eliminated barriers including most tariffs to free trade among the three countries
New International division country
a process that keeps global inequalities in place, discourages new industries form developing in LDC and presnets wealth from flowing MDC’S to LDC’S
Pacific Rim
In recent years other part of the pacific rim continues that border the Pacific Ocean on their eastern shores, have also experienced industrialized
Primary economic activities
Primary economic activities are those activities where natural resources are extracted from the earth
Primary Sector
Is the part of the economy that draws raw materials from the natural environment
Primary Industry
Develops around the location of natural resources such as the industrial belt in the British midlands.
Secondary Industry
Develops which is less dependent on resource location. Raw materials may be transferred to the factories for manufacture.
Proven reserve
Just how much petroleum, coal, and natural gas remains on earth is uncertain. Energy deposits that have been discovered are called proven reserve
Potential reserve
These may be measured with reasonable accuracy.
Rostow’s stages
Modernization theory hold that economic prosperity is open to all countries According to Rostow, modernization occurs in four stages:
Traditional Stage
Take off stage
Drive to technological maturity
High Mass consumption
Secondary Economic activities
Secondary sector
Secondary industrial region
Develops which is less dependent on resource location
Single Market manufactures
clothing manufacturing shipping to New York city also cluster near their markets.
Space-Time Compression
describes the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communications and transportation system
Special Economic Zones
foreign inventions us allowed and capitalist ventures are encouraged
Substitution Principle
suggest that business owners can juggle expenses as long as labor land rents transpiration and other cost don’t all go up at times
Sustainable development
basic premise is that people living today should not impair the ability of futures generations to meet their needs
Tertiary Sector
Is the part of the economic that involves services rather than goods
Trading blocs
conglomerations of trade among countries withing a region
Transnational Corporations
companies that operate factories in countries other than the ones in which they are headquarters
Value Added productivity
The value added in manufacturing may be figured by subtracting the cost of raw materials and energy from the gross value of the product
Variable Revenue Analysis
Or the firms ability to capture a market that will earn more customers and money than its competitors
Watt, James
The big break through came with the steam engine invented by James,Watt which allowed much more flexible use of energy to drive new machines.
Weber, Alfred
developed a model for the location of secondary industries

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