Wood Unit 4

Geography
Balkanization
When a state falls and separates into smaller ethnically based countries
Binational State
a state that contains 2 nations
MultiNational State
a state that contains more than one nation.
Boundary
An invisible line that marks the extent of a state’s territory and the control that it’s leaders have.
Centripetal Force
A force that unifies people of a nation
Centrifugal Force
A force that fragments the people of a nation.
Cold War
The competition between the US and the Soviet Union for control of land spaces.
Colonies
Dependent areas.
Command Economy
Economies with socialist principles.
Compact States
A state whose shape is similar to a circle.
Confederal System
A system that spreads the power among sub-units, and has a weak central government.
Consequent Boundaries
Another name for the Cultural boundaries
Core Area
the area in which a nation-state originates
Core-Periphery
Te migration to core area.
Cultural Boundary
Boundaries set in some states by ethnic differences, especially those based on language and/or religion.
Democratization
The change into a democratic government.
Devolution
The transfer of some important powers from the central government to sub-governments.
Positional Disputes
Disputes between states about where the border is.
Territorial disputes
disputes between states over the ownership of a region
Resource Disputes
disputes between states involving natural resources in border areas.
Functional Disputes
disputes between states about policies that apply in a border area.
Economic Force
A devolutionary force.
Electoral Geography
The study of how spatial configuration of electoral districts and voting patterns reflect and influence social and political affairs.
elongated states
A state with a long and narrow state
enclaves
A territory that is landlocked within another country, so that the country surrounds it.
exclaves
Small bits of territory that lie on coasts separated from the state by the territory of another state.
ethnic force
A devolutionary force.
ethnonationalism
The tendency for an ethnic group to wee itself as a distinct nation with a right to autonomy or independence.
European Constitution
European Monetary Union
A union that handles all basic interest rates and fiscal policies.
European Union
A region that promises to redefine the meaning of sovereignty.
federal system
A system that divides the power among the central government and the sub-units.
forward capital
When the capital city serves as a model for national objectives, especially for economic developments and future hopes.
fragmentation
divisions based on ethnic or cultural identity
fragmented states
A state that has several discontinuous pieces of territory
frontiers
Geographic zones where no state exercises power where no state exercises power
geometric boundary
Straight, imaginary boundaries.
gerrymandering
Attempts to redraw boundaries in an attempt to win seats.
geopolitics
the study of spatial and territorial relationships within the global-territorial order
globalization
Growing commonalities between different nations.
government
A reference to the leadership and the institutions that make policy decisions for a country
heartland theory
A theory that states the pivot area of Eurasia holds the resources to dominate the globe.
imperialism
Empire building(not the building)
institutions
stable, long-lasting organizations that help to turn political ideas into policies.
integration
A process that encourages states to pool their sovereignty in order to gain political, economic, and social clout.
internal boundaries
Boundaries within the state
irredentism
When a nation crosses extends out of its state.
landlocked states
States lacking ocean frontage.
market economy
An economy with socialist principles.
marketization
A state’s re-creation of a market in which property, labor, goods, and services can function in a competitive environment to determine their value.
median-line principle
microstates
Small states
minority/majority districting
rearranging a district to allow a minority representative to be elected.
mixed economy
An economy that allows for significant control from the central government
monetary policy
control of the money supply
multicore state
States with more than one core area.
nation
A group of people that is bound together by a common political identity.
nation-state
A state whose boundaries coincide with a distinct nation.
nationalism
Identities based on nationhood.
perforated states
A state that completely surrounds another state.
physical boundary
boundaries that are easy to see, in reality and in maps.
political geography
The study of the political organization of the planet
political culture
The collection of political beliefs, values, practices, and institutions that the government is based on.
politicization of religion
The use of religious principles to promote political ends
politics
Power, who gets power, how, etc.
primate city
A capital city that has no rival in terms of size or influence.
privatization
The transfer of state-owned property to private ownership
Ratzel, Friedrich
A geographer that theorized a state compares to a biological organism with a life cycle.
relative location
the location of a state
rimland theory
the theory stating that the Eurasian rim, not the heart, held the key to global power.
Security Council
A body of the UN responsible for peacekeeping.
Separatist movement
When different nationalities in a state demand independence.
Shatter belts
Zones of great cultural complexity containing many small cultural groups who find refuge in isolation.
Sovereignty
The ability of a state to carry out actions or policies within it’s borders without any interference from the inside or outside.
Spatial force
A devolutionary force.
stateless nation
Nations without a state.
states
countries with a defined border. Also has sovereignty.
supranational organization
Groups of nations cooperating on either a regional or international level
territorial morphology
Describes the shapes, sizes, and relative location of a state.
territoriality
Efforts to control pieces of the Earth’s surface for political and social ends.
“third wave” of democratization
The defeat of totalitarian or dictatorial rulers from South America to Eastern Europe.
three pillars
The three spheres of authority
unitary state
A state that concentrates all policy-making powers in one central geographic place.

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