World Cities

Geography
Million Cities
City with a population of over 1 million
6.5 million
Population of Essen, Germany
4.5 million
Population of Baghdad, Iraq
3 million
Population of Cape Town, South Africa
Mega Cities
City with a population of over 10 million
18 million
Population of Mumbai, India
18 million
Population of Jakarta, Indonesia in 2010
Megalopolis
Term coined by Gottman, with population of 40 million. Includes NYC, Baltimore, Boston, Washington, Philidelphia
Backwash effect
effect where all talent and working age people congregate in cities rather than in rural areas
World Cities
NYC, Tokyo and London, centres of world finance, stock markets, MNCs and politics
2 million
Population of Jakarta 1948
6.5 million
Population of Jakarta in 1980
1800s
Trade with North American and Caribbean caused growth in Liverpool
300,000
Liverpool Pop in 1850
Irish Potato famine
Caused influx of irish immigrants to Liverpool in 1850s
1865
Tram network in Liverpool opened
Bootle and Garston
Areas of dock development in Liverpool
Anfield and Toxteth
Areas of terraced housing for dock workers in Liverpool
600,000
Liverpool pop in 1880, 2nd largest UK port
1894
Manchester Ship Canal opened
1898
Electric trams introduced to Liverpool, expanding suburbs
Calderstones, Allerton, Hyton, Aintree, Kirby and Walton
Liverpool suburbs
1886, 1937 and 1971
Mersey river tunnels for rail and road opened
West Kirby and Heston
Suburbs on the Wirral in Liverpool
846,000
Liverpool peak pop in 1931
1950s-60s
West Indian immigration to Liverpool occured, settling in Toxteth
Croxteth, Speke and Fazarkerly
Liverpool council estates developed in 1960s
Warrington
Overspill city for Liverpool
Skelmersdale
Liverpool’s New Town
1980s
Liverpool docks derelict
442,000
Liverpool pop in 2001
16th century
Rio de Janeiro founded
1 million
Rio de Janeiro pop in 1920
Copacabana, Leblon and Ipanem
Beach resorts population in Rio in 1920s and 30s
2.5 million
Rio de Janeiro pop in 1950
Niteroi and Duxque Caxias
Industrial areas developed 1970s in Rio
Rocinha
developed 1970s with a population of 0.25 million in Rio
Bangu and Nova Igacu
Towns developed 1970s in Rio
1974
Bridge built to Niteroi
1980s
New Rio de Janeiro airport built
5 million
Rio de Janeiro pop in 1980
Barra de Tijuca
Edge city of Rio, developed 1990s
7 million
Rio de Janeiro pop in 2007
61%
World population living in cities by 2030
Ribbon development
The development of housing along main roads.
Town and Country Planning Act
Passed 1947 banning ribbon developments, planned New towns and the Green Belt
1950s
Britains first new towns built e.g. Skelmersdale, Hatfield and Redditch
30,000
Average population of the first generation of UK New Towns
1960s+70s
More new Towns built e.g. Telford, Milton Keynes and Livingstone
100,000
Population of second generation UK New Towns
Cergy Pointoise and Marne-la-Vallee
Paris new towns
ARISO
Paris motorway
RER
Paris high-speed rail link
10th Ramandan, El Sadat, 6th October and 15th May
Cairo new Towns
1970
Village shop in Longdon closed
Admaston
Village engulfed by Telford in 1970s
Shawbirche
Perpheral housing estate on the edge of Telford
Key Settlement Policy
maintaining village services
High Ercall
Selected for Key Settlement Policy in 1960s
1980s
Liverpool riots
UDC
Urban Development Corporation, founded 1980s, lead by Mr Heseltine
Garden festival, Marina Housing, Brunswick Business Park
UDC developments
12%
Rise in Liverpool CBD jobs 1998-2007
Liverpool Vision
scheme to promote CBD living began 1999
Beetham Tower and Plaza
Liverpool Vision housing
Kings Dock Scheme
Liverpool Vision, creating 200 apartments in 2003
?20 million
Cost of Kings Dock development
Morrison, Belway and Crosby Homes and Atrium
Liverpool Vision Partners
St. Andrew’s Gardens
Social housing refurb by the Riverside Housing Association
?13 million
Cost of St. Andrew’s Garden Refurb
Calcadao de Copacabana
Beach side walk in Leblon, constructed 1969
Upper Leblon
Desirable area to access beach and CBD
Lower Leblon
Bohemian quarter of Leblon
Cobal Leblon
Leblon farmers market
Ataulfa de Palva
Main Leblon street, refurbished in Project Rio Cidade
2016 Olympics
Copacabana is hosting beach volleyball, triathalon and distance swimming. The metro link has been extended to Barra.
Shanghai Master Plan
Regeneration plan
Pudong Open Development Zone
Created 1990
Lu Jia Zui
New finance district in Pudong
Richard Rogers
Architect of Lu Jia Zui
4 km2
Size of Lu Jia Zui
500,000
Apartments in Lu Jia Zui
15,000
Parking spaces in Lu Jia Zui
1/4
Lilong housing cleared for sustainable land use in Pudong
Lightmoor Telford
Urban village development in 2008
English partnerships/National Housing and |Regeneration Agency for England
Began the Lightmoor Project
1000 and 25%
Ecohomes constructed in Lightmoor and percentage affordable
Bourneville Village Trust
Long-term stewards of Lightmoor
Simmond and WImpey
Building partners of Lightmoor
59
Apartments built as part of an elderly persons development in Lightmoor, open December 2011
?920million
Cost of Liverpool One
Liverpool One
Development Scheme from 2004, developing area between CBD and docklands
Kings Waterfront Arena, Princes Dock and Kings Dock Housing
Projects under Liverpool One
European City of culture
Won by Liverpool in 2008
10 million
extra visitors to Liverpool in 2008
?750 million
Extra funds generated in 2008 in Liverpool
Enterprize Zone
Liverpool Waters identified in 2011, with no rates for 5 years
Stratford, London
Location of Olympic Site
London Docklands Development Corporation
Regenerated London docks
London Development Agency
Partnership for Olympic formed January 2008, including 17 partners
EDAW
Olympic Design company
Arup
Olympic Cost Benefit Analysis Company
Allies and Morrison
Olympic civil engineers
3000+1000
Ecohomes constructed in Olympic site and additional after event, with 30% affordable
?500 million
Cost of Olympic Stadium
80,000
Olympic Stadium capacity
Pump-Priming
Government providing incentives to encourage gentrification
Canning Street
Area of Liverpool experiencing gentrification
EU Objective 1
Reducing unemployment provided funding for gentrification, matched by the Uk government
English Heritage
QUANGO listing buildings in Liverpool
Newington Green
Area of London experiencing Gentrification
?8-10 million
Sale of rural land for developments by farmers
Tyson Corner
Edge city near Washington DC
200
Edge cities in USA
600,000ft2
Retail space at Edge cities
Speke-Garston
Out of town retail park in Liverpool
Wavetree Technology Park
Built 2003 on railway yards in Liverpool
750 and 16000
Firms and jobs at Wavetree Technology Park
Kings Waterfront Arena, Albert Docks, Clayton Square, Cavern Walks
Liverpool CBD retail refurbs
14%
High street shops closed in Walsall since December 2010
Walsall Regeneration Company
Formed 2004
St. Matthew’s Church, Art Gallery and Gorway Campus
Walsall Regeneration Company projects
?21 million
Cost of new Walsall Gallery opened 2000
The Waterfront Project
Walsall’s Millenium Project with funding from Urban Splash
?18 million
Funding for Walsall Waterfront Project
Crown Wharf
Walsall retail park
2010
New Tesco in Walsall
Total UK Waste Diversion rate
kg per household per year recycled
EU Landfill Directive
promise to cut biodegradable waste by 50% 1995-2015
73%
UK waste went to landfill in 2005
WRAP
Waste and Resources Action Programme
10
Eco-towns planned
6000
Ecohomes planned
European Sustainable City Awards
Won by Leicester in 1996
1990
Leicester becomes UK’s first Environmental City
1990-2015
Aim to reduce CO2 by 1/2
50km
Cycle routes in Leicester
50%
Increase in cycling in Leicester 1980
12 mile
Length of Park in Leicester along River Soar
green Accounts
Cash for cans, foil, textiles and paper in leicester
Compra de Lixo
exchange of farming equipment for waste in Curitiba
Green Exchange
Food r bus tickets swapped for recyclables in Curitiba
70%
Waste in Curitiba recycled
28
Parks in Curitiba
1.5 million
Trees planted in Curitiba
Chongming
Green Island Project in Shanghai, made of 8 cities
1 million
Population of Chongming
22%
Less congestion since charges introduced to London 2002-2006
15%
Reduction in vehicle emissions since congestion charges in London
43%
Increase in cycling in London since congestion charges 2002-2006
?112 million
raised 2005-2006 by London congestion charges
750,000
Commuters to London from outside M25
91%
Increase in cycling since 2000 in London
40%
Percentage of commuters in morning peak cycling in London
560km
Cycle lanes in London
10,000
Bike spaces in London
Finnsbury Park Transport Interchange
24 hour bike spaces with 125 spaces
36,000
Commuters through Finnsbury park every day
480,000
Cyclists daily in London
?7 million
Cost of bicycle lanes in London
?200
Daily fine for polluting lorries in Low Emissions Zone London
?40 million
Cost of Oyster Card system
4000
machines to top-up Oyster cards
7 million
Oyster Cards in use
Curitiba Master Plan
Made 1968 by Jaime Lerner
35,000
Population of Curitiba 1960
1.7 million
Population in 2009
2.14 million
Users of Curitiba bus system every day
Hoy No Circula
Mexico City plan preventing cars with certain coloured number plates driving one day a week
Vehicle Quota Scheme
Plan in Singapore to limit vehicles

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