World Geo Chapter 3/4 Vocabulary

Geography
the number of live births each year per 1,000 people
birthrate
an economic system that is controled by a single central government.
command economy
The contact and interaction of one culture with another
cultural convergence (example: America, they exchange things and interact.)
the restriction of a culture from outside influences
cultural divergence (ex. North Korea – totalitarian (divided)
the way of life that distinguishes a people, for example, government, language, religion, customs, and beliefs.
culture
a system of government in which the people are invested with the power to choose the leaders and determine government policy.
democracy
a system of government in which absolute power is held by a small group or one person.
dictatorship
a government structure in which some powers are are given to the national government and other powers are reserved for more local government.
federation
an economic system in which decisions about production, price, and other economic factors are determined by the law of supply and demand.
market economy
a system of authoritarian government headed by a monarch – a king, queen, shah, or sultan – whose position is usually inherited.
monarchy
the average number of people living in a given area.
population density
of, or characteristic of, the country-side.
rural
a country’s freedom and power to decide on policies and actions
sovereignty
a system of government in which a central authority controls all aspects of society.
totalitarianism
an economic system in which families produce goods and services for their own use, with little surplus and exchange of goods; also known as a subsitence economy.
traditional economy
a system of government in which are central government holds most of the political power.
unitary system (examples: monarchy, authoritarian, dictatorship, totalitarianism)
the growth of city populations.
urbanization
representative democracy
federation
Starts with family, crops for family and maybe village, little surplus and little for trade. Little $= subsitent living. An example of an underdeveloped country is ___________.
Traditional economy (no government)
Starts with government, they own who receive the money, operate who works at a business, and determine how much is made in business production. Examples are monarchy, totalitarian, and authoritarian. An example of a developed country is a _____________ economy.
Command economy, (Examples are the Soviet Union, North Korea, and Cuba.)

Starts with the Laws of 

Supply and Demand, branches off into consumers and private enterprise (business). Determines prices and production, and is called Government Regulation. An example of a developed and developing countries is the __________ economy.

Market economy (there are many choices in the market economy).
More than _____ _________ people live on the earth, and in some areas the population density, or average number of people who live in a square mile or square kilometer, is very high.
six billion
Only a ____ _______ of the earth’s surface is suitable for human habitation.
small portion
People have ____ to different environments, and at the same time human activity has _________ the earth’s physical landscape.
adapted, altered
____________ is the cornerstone of culture and reflects a culture’s identity.
*Language*
Religion helps people understand basic questions about the ________ of life, and religious belieds _____ from culture to culture.
meaning, vary
Every culture has a way of organizing its _________ and most have social classes that ______ people in order of status.
society, rank
Modern technology, such as improved ______ _______ and increased food production, has enabled people to live much longer, but it poses a special problem for ______ countries.
medical care, poorer
Some demographers predict population growth will bring _________, _________, and _________ ________, but others predict that levels of techonology and creativity will increase. (over population)
famine, disease, resource depletion
Population is affected by the number of __________ and emigrants.
immigrants
Many people live in ________ areas, and the process of growth of city populations, or ___________, is going on throughout the world.
metropolitan, urbanization
in many cultures, social mobility is _________, and limits are often imposed upon women and ethnic or religious minorities.
restricted
___________ is the process by which a cultural element is transmitted from one group to another.
diffusion
Each country has four specific characteristics: (what makes up a country)

1. borders

2. sovereignty

3. population

4. government

_____________ is the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies and provides for its common needs.
Government
a beginning place, where a culture begins
culture hearths

man’s attempt to explain the meaning of life.

-monotheistic – one God (Muslim, Christianity)

-polytheistic – many gods

religion
the conerstone of culture, cannot pass on culture without ___________.
language
a group of people who think alike. family is the most important __________ ____________. some _______ ________ punish others, examples are women being persecuted, minorities, etc. are persecuted.
social organizations
a small-scale manufacturing operation using little technology, often located in or near people’s homes.
Cottage industry
a country that exports more than they import is called a ________ country.
developed
higher standards of living, higher levels of education/health care, more transportation
developed country (industrial society)
lack adequate industries/modern technology/depend on developed countries for goods.
underdeveloped countries
show evidence of political, economic and social progress. lack economic developement of a developed country.
developing countries

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