Be familiar with the upland regions of Latin America: the Andes, the Mexican Plateau, the Uplands of Central America, the Brazilian Shield, & the Patagonian Shield.
Climate: how does the climate of Latin America vary (both by location and by the season) – How much seasonal variation is there in temperatures in the tropics of Latin America? How does rainfall vary from season to season?
Be familiar with the system of Altitudinal Zonation, specifically with the characteristics of each of the zones.
What environmental issues does the country of Mexico (especially the Valley of Mexico) currently face? What is a temperature inversion? An aquifer? Subsidence?
Hurricanes: when and where do they occur? When and where did Hurricane Mitch hit? What was the impact of Hurricane Mitch?
How has the population of Latin America changed since 1950? From where have people migrated to Latin America? Where have people of Latin America migrated to? What was the Bracero Program?
How has the rate of urbanization changed in Latin America in the past 50 years? How prevalent are primate cities in Latin America? What are examples of countries (in Latin America) that do not have primate cities? Where are urban agglomerations located in Latin America?
Be familiar with the urban form of Latin American cities. Where do different socioeconomic groups live in the Latin American city? What are squatter settlements?
Where are they usually located in Latin American cities? What is the informal sector?
What three significant pre-Columbian civilizations existed in Latin America and where were they located? What kind of agricultural innovations did these people develop?
Why and to what extent was there a demographic collapse in Latin America after European contact? What was the Columbian Exchange? What were some of the significant crops that were domesticated by the indigenous people of Latin America and what was their affect on Europe? What materials where introduced from Europe to the new world and how did they affect society?
How has the cocaine drug trade affected the country of Columbia (and the countries of Peru & Bolivia)? How is cocaine transported to market?