World Geography Vocabulary

Geography
Level of Economics: Secondary
The second level of economic activity; adding value to materials by changing their forms. Example: a car
Level of Economics: Tertiary
Third level of economic activity where a business or service is offered.
Example:Doctor,teacher,salesman
Level of Economics: Quaternary
Most complex level of economics where information, management, and research services are provided by highly-trained people.
Level of Economics: Primary
The basic level of economics where raw materials are gathered for a final product
Seismograph
Measures the size of the waves created by earthquakes
Richter scale
Measures the strength of the earthquake
Climate
weather conditions at a particular location over a period of time
Acculturation
When a society changes because it accepts or adapts to an innovation.
Layers of the Earth
Atmosphere:Gas
Lithosphere:Rock
Hydrosphere:water
Biosphere:Life; combination of above 3
Five themes of Geography
Location,place,region,movement,human-environmental interaction
Weather
The condition of the atmosphere at a particular time and place
Per Capita Income
average amount of money earned by each person in a political unit
Political map
shows boundaries
Megalopolis
A region in which several large cities grow together,usually around bodies of water.
Example: Chicago
GNP
Gross Nation Product, the total value of all goods and services produced by a country over a year, or some other specified period of time
Four sub-regions of the United States
Northeast,south,Midwest,west
Free Enterprise
Individual freedom of the economy. Little control from government
America:1787
U.S. constitution replaces the fragile Articles of Confederation at 2nd continental congress
13th Amendment
Freedom for former slaves
14th Amendment
Citizenship for former slaves
15th amendment
Gave slaves right to vote
Andes Mountain
The primary mountain chain in South America,located on the west coast
Longitude lines
Run North to south,measures east or west of the prime meridian
Latitude lines
Runs east to west,measures north and south of the equator
Human-Environmental Interaction
How do people relate to the physical world?
Five themes of Geography: Region
How are places similar and different?
Constitutional Monarchy
Kingdoms in which the ruler’s powers are limited by a constitution
Infrastructure
Things a community needs to operate and function. Example:Electricity,transportation,sewage
Spanish Conquest
conquering of Native Americans by the Spanish
Inca
Great,ancient Southern American civilization living in the Andes Mountain in Peru
Oligarchy
a government run by a few people
Fjords
Deep u-shaped valleys created by glaciers; contains water from melted glaciers & connects with the sea
North Atlantic Drift
a current of warm water from the tropics that flows near Europe’s west coast
Dikes
man-made earthen banks that hold back water
When did the Renaissance happen?
Around 1300s to 1500s
When did the Reformation happen?
Around 1500s
How many people did the Bubonic plague kill in Europe?
about 25 million people
Berlin Wall
Wall erected to separate West and East Germany during cold war Torn down in 1991 after collapse of the Soviet Union.
Parliament
Representative law-making body whose members are either elected or appointed
Ethnic Cleansing
the policy of trying to eliminate an ethnic group through violence
Ural Mountains
Separate the continents of Europe and Asia
Siberia
Part of Russia that is on the Asian Continent
Trans-Siberian Railroad
Connects the entire country of Russia from coast to coast
How was the Soviet Union dissolve after it fell?
it separated into 15 republics the biggest being Russia
Much of Africa consists of a huge _______.
Plateau-a flat,elevated piece of land
“Plateau continent”
African Distinct Landforms: Rift Valley
Sunken land created by moving tectonic plates
African Distinct Landforms: escarpment
a steep slope with a nearly flat plateau on top
If you were stuck in the middle of a desert with your body dehydrating,what would you hope to see?
An oasis, an area of vegetation and water in the desert
How has colonialism affected Africa
After most countries in Africa gained their independence in the 1960s,major economic problems began to arouse.
Pandemic
uncontrollable outbreak of diseases affecting a large population over a wide geographic area.
Examples: AIDS, Cholera, Tuberculosis
Pandemic
uncontrollable outbreak of diseases affecting a large population over a wide geographic area.
Examples: AIDS, Cholera, Tuberculosis
Why is the Nile River important to civilizations in North Africa
Possible answers: It contributes a plentiful supply of water or allows farming with the mild climate.
What is the main cultural and religious influence in North Africa?
Answer: Islam
Bantu Migrations
spread cultures and languages from central Africa to Southern Africa
Apartheid
complete separation of races in South Africa
What is another name for Southwest Asia
answer: the middle east
Tigris and Euphrates River
supported ancient river valley civilizations known as Mesopotamia
Drip irrigation
uses small pipes just above the ground to bring water to the crops
Crude oil
very important resource in Southwest Asia
Refinery
Where crude oil is processed
Theocracy
government run by religious leaders
Stateless Nations
A group of people without a land to legally occupy
Example: Kurds, Palestinians
Since the 1967 war, Palestinian territories are under occupy by which country?
Answer: Israel
Name one fact about Islam
Possible Answers include:
-a monotheistic religion found by Muhammad
-Mecca is considered the holy city
-pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in your lifetime
-5 pillars of Faith are considered the duties of Muslims
-two branches: Sunnis & Shi’ite
-worship in a mosque
Which has more people: Sunnis or Shi’ite?
Sunnis because they make up 83% of the Muslim population; found mostly in Turkey,Iraq,Afghanistan
1.When was Israel officially created?
Answers:in 1948
What are the two areas of land set aside for Palestinian refugees by the PLO?
West Bank & Gaza Strip
Archipelago
an island group
Hinduism
main religion of India, Ganges river is important to the religion,polytheistic
Caste System
Aryan system of social classes that goes with the Hindu religion
Raj
Period of direct British control in India that lasted for nearly 90 years
India: August 14,1947
India gained independence from British rules, Bangladesh and Pakistan created as Muslim countries
True or False: India is the world’s largest democracy
TRUE
India has one of the largest economies but the per capita income remains_____, due to the______.
India has one of the largest economies but the per capita income remains low, due to the standard of living.
What is Buddha’s name and where was he born?
Siddhartha Gautama, born in Nepal where Buddhism originated
Buddhism
founded in the foothills of the Himalayas. It is seen as a Classical Indian Religion.

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