World Regional Geography – Exam 2

Geography

 

Chokepoint

narrow passageway on land or water that can be easily closed off
Suez Canal
between the red and mediterranean seas, controlled by Egypt
Middle Eastern countries that have access to fresh water
Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Egypt
Desalinization
the process of filtering the salt out of sea water, very expensive
Middle Eastern countries that have access to oil
Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Yemen, Qatar and UAE
OPEC

organization of petroleum exporting countries; alliance between middle eastern countries

 

Gulf War
Iraq tries to annex Kuwait for use of its resources/land; stopped by international forces
Iran/Iraq War
Iraq attempting to expand its boarders, unsuccessful
Oil crisis in 1973
in response to the US re-supplying Israel during the Yom Kippur War
Oil crisis in 1979
in response to the Iranian revolution – regime change led to drastic cuts in exports
GWB’s “Axis of Evil”
Iran, Iraq and North Korea
Location of Hamas terror organization
located in Gaza
Location of Hezbullah terror orgainzation
located in Lebanon
Location of Al Qaida;
located in Afghanistan;
Mujahidin
;Afghani organization that fought Soviet USSR when they invaded in 1979; funded by the US
origin of Al Qaeda;
after the USSR invasion of 1979, Mujahdin morphed into Al Qaeda with the funds provided by the US; Taliban takeover
US invasion of Afghanistan;
fall 2001; to get Osama Bin Laden and to destroy as much of Al Qaida as possible
Operation Iraqi Freedom
2003; search for WMD’s, none found; Saddam Hussein found, tried, and executed
Northern Africa (The Maghreb) – Issues
Rapid population growth, food shortages, ethnic tensions
Islamic Salvation Front
Algerian Islamist political party
Janjaweed
group backed by the sudanese government that is currently killing hundreds of thousands of civilians under the pretext of “quashing a rebellion”
Zionism
a belief in the need for a Jewish state; stems from Jewish historical connection to the land and a post-holocaust need for a place of asylum
Main middle eastern/north african issues
  • space, place, and palestinian displacement
  • failed peace talks
  • use of terror and military strikes
  • security (fence/wall)

War of independence 1947 – 1948
british mandate of a palestinian state; clash between the Israeli and Palestinian arab populations
1967 6-day war
Israel triples its territory into Egypt, Jordan and Syria
Yom Kippur War 1973
Egypt and Syria invade Israel on Yom Kippur; almost resulted in the confrontation of US and USSR, two nuclear superpowers at the time
Monsoons
land to sea/sea to land winds; dictate much of 
agricultural techniques of asia
  1. slash and burn
  2. wet rice cultivation

diaspora
the exile of a group of people (jews)
Qur’an
the holy book of islam
sunni muslim
more liberal view, believes that the ruler of a country should be the one who is most qualified, not necessarily a descendant of the prophet Mohammed;
shiite muslim
more conservative view; believes that the ruler of a country must be a direct descendent of the prophet mohammed
camp david accords
peace talks between Egypt and Israel, Egypt obtained sinai peninsula
intifada
arabic word for “shaking-off”; translated to popular resistance to oppression; palestine vs. israel;
Palestinian Liberation Organization
organization created with the goal of “Palestinian liberation”; the sole legitimate representation of the Palestinian people.
two-state solution

the failed UN solution to the palestinian israeli land conflict; countries were vulnerable cause of long boarders

;

confucianism;
a chinese ethical and philosophical system; main ideas include the proper management of a society, honor for elders, hierarchy, and education
levee;
natural or artificial slope/wall to regulate water levels
mutually assured destruction
the relationship between two nuclear capable countries that says that if one attacks, the other would retaliate
one child policy
China’s population control strategy in which each urban couple is restricted to having one child
value-added manufacturing
the method of optimizing the efficiency of a manufacturer 
caste system
the Indian social hierarchy that is defined by lineage and enforced by the law
crony capitalism
the subsidization of insolvent companies by sympathetic politicians
economic recession
significant decline in the economic activity spread across the country over a period of time
Khmer Rouge
communist group that controls Cambodia
Viet Cong 
communist group that used guerilla tactics to fight the south vietnamese side in the Vietnam war
demilitarized zone

the narrow strip of land that serves as the buffer between north and south korea

 

gunboat diplomacy
the pursuit of foreign policy objectives with the aid of conspicuous displays of military power, implying a threat of warfare
Tamil Tigers
group seeking the independence of Sri Lanka
origin of Bangladesh
east pakistan revolt against the rest of pakistan, resulting in a new country
sectarian violence
major issue in India; violent crimes between members of different castes
bride burning
a major problem in India; when the bride’s family refuses to pay the groom’s family extra dowry, the groom’s family responds by capturing and burning the bride
mumbai terror attacks
a series of terror attacks in India’s largest city by muslim terrorists from Pakistan
Major Issue in Maldives and Bangladesh

parts of these two nations are in danger of being submerged by rising water levels

 

cambodian genocide
mid to late 70’s; communist government murdered approximately 1.7 million people, with emphasis on the educated and successful
Two divisions of China
Arid (West) and Humid (East)
Current issue in Arid China
riots/ethnic unrest between the Uyghurs and the Han in the Xinjiang;
autonomous regions of Arid China
Tibet and Xinjiang are examples
Three Gorges Dam
china’s desperate attempt to improve its irrigation system
Communist Takeover 1949
erupted from the chinese civil war during which the western-supported nationalists lost to the communist party; Mao Zedong is the leader
Great Leap Forward 1958 – 1961
attempt to make China a great agricultural force; development of farming communes; ended in failure
Cultural Revolution 1966 – 1976
attempt to eradicate anyone against the Communist government; mobilization of red guards 
current Chinese issues
  1. large scale pollution
  2. coming out of isolation (exports)
  3. industrialization
  4. infectious disease (SARS)
  5. free speech limitations

Poisonous Toy Situation
march 2007 recall of millions of toys, mass production of exports and the use of cheap harmful materials like lead; resulted in the international distrust of Chinese products
Major issues of Japan
  1. resource scarcity
  2. volcanoes and earthquakes
  3. agricultural poverty

double cropping
growing 2 different crops on the same field during different seasons
intertillage
growing two or more crops at the same time on the same field
Political Division of the Koreas
stalinist north and capitalist south
three geographical divisions of Oceania
  1. melanesia
  2. micronesia
  3. polynesia

continental islands
islands that either are continents or were attached to continents
high islands
islands that result from volcanic eruptions
endemic species
animals that exist nowhere else on earth; lots in oceania
Aborigines and the Lost Generation
whites did not want the presence of the Aborigines in Australia so they attempted to kidnap interracial children and raise them as white

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