WRG Part 1

Geography
“Bubble economy”
A highly inflated economy that cannot be sustained. Bubble economies usually result from rapid influx of international capital into a developing country.
Globalization
The increasing interconnectedness of people and places throughout the world through converging processes of economic, political, and cultural change.
Rate of Natural Increase (RNI)
The standard statistic used to express natural population growth per year for a country, region, or the world based upon the difference between birth and death rates. It does not consider population change from migration.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The average number of children who will be born by women of a hypothetical, yet statistically valid, population, such as that of a specific cultural group or within a particular country. Considered more reliable indicator of population change than crude birthrate.
Asymmetrical warfare
term describes the differences between a superpower’s military technology and strategy and the lower-level technology and guerrilla tactics used by al Queda and the Taliban.
State
political unit with territorial boundaries recognized by other countries that is internally governed by an organization structure
Nation
refers to a large group of people who share numerous cultural elements, such as language, religion, tradition, or simple cultural identity, more importantly view themselves as forming a single political community.
Nation-state
a relatively homogenous cultural group with its own fully independent political territory
Centrifugal forces
culture and political forces acting to weaken or divide an existing state
Centripetal forces
counteracting destructive forces and promote political unity and reinforce the state structure.
Colonialism
refers to the formal establishment rule over a foreign population.
a. A colony has no independent standing in the world community, but instead is seen only as an appendage of the colonial power.
Decolonialism
refers to the process of a colony’s gaining (or regaining) control over its territory and establishing a separate, independent government.
Core-periphery model
devised by scholars, United States and Canada, Western Europe, and Japan constitute the global economic core of the north, while most of the areas to the south make up less-developed global periphery.
a. Says that the developed northern core achieved its wealth primarily by taking advantage of the southern periphery, either through historical colonial relationships or through more recent economic imperialism.
“Third World” country
used to refer to the developing world. Suggest a low level of economic development, unstable political organizations, and a very basic social infrastructure. This term was originally a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and Western countrys such as the United States and Europe- was used to describe those countries that were independent and not allied with either the capitalist or the democratic.
More- and Less Developed Countries (MDC and LDC)
terms that capture the complex spectrum of economic and social development.
Development
(expanding or realizing potential, bringing gradually to a fuller or better state) economic development- implies structural changes such as a shift from agricultural to manufacturing activity. Changes in the uses of labor, capital, and technology often accompany such a shift. These changes are also assumed to bring improvements in standard of living, education, and even political organization
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
value of all final goods and services produced within a country’s borders
Gross National Income (GNI)
the traditional measure of the size of a country’s economy is the value of all final goods and services produced within its borders (GDP) plus the net income from abroad.
Mortality Rate under 5 years
is the measure of the number of children who die per 1,000 persons, is an important indicator of social conditions.
a. In the first 5 years a chold moves form the personal protection and nurturing of his/her mother into a larger social environment; these first 5 years are a time of high vulnerability to nutritional deprivation, infection, disease, accidents, and other human tragedies.
Adult Literacy Rate
provide two kinds of information relevant to the social development of a country.
a. High rates of literacy are usually products of low levels of national investment in education.
b. Gender inequalities can be evident in these data.
c. Often much higher rates of illiteracy for females than males. – suggest strong cultural, social, or economic limits on the education of girls and women.
d. Consequences of low literacy rate
i. Higher birthrate accompanies high female illiteracy rate
ii. The role of women in a country’s economy is closely linked to their levels of education and literacy.
Hybridization/Syncretism
the blending of forces to form a new type of culture
Geography
The study of the earth and its features and of the distribution of life on the earth, including human life and the effects of human activity.
Population Pyramid
data for age and sex are plotted graphically as a percentage of total population.
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
measured by the rate of births among a population of 1000.
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
measured by the rate of deaths among a population of 1000.
Life expectancy
The number of years that an individual is expected to live as determined by statistics
Demographic Transition
A four stage model of population change derived from the historical decline of the natural rate of increase as a population becomes increasingly urbanized through industrialization and economic development
Push factor
factors that drive people from their homes such as unemployment and war
Pull factor
factors such as better economic opportunity that attract migrants to certain locations
Urbanized population
percentage of a countries population living in the cities
Culture
learned and shared behavior by a group of people empowering them with a distinct way of life; it includes both material and immaterial components
Cultural imperialism
The active promotion of one cultural system over another, such as the implantation of a new language, school system, or bureaucracy. Historically, this has been primarily associated with European colonialism
Cultural nationalism
A process of protecting, either formally (with laws) or informally (with social values), the primacy of a certain cultural system against influences from another culture.
Cultural syncretism/hybridization
The blending of two or more cultures, which produces a synergistic third culture that exhibits traits from all cultural parents
Dialect
Individual languages with different forms of speech
Lingua franca
An agreed upon common language to facilitate communication on specific topics such as international business, politics, sports, and entertainment
Universalizing religion
A religion, usually with an active missionary program, that appeals to a large group of people regardless of local culture and conditions
Ethnic religion
A religion closely identified with a specific ethnic or tribal group, often to the point of assuming the role of the major defining characteristic of that group
Secularization
The widespread movement in western Europe away from regular participation and engagement with traditional organized religions such as Protestantism or Catholicism
Geopolitics
the close link between geography and political activity
Global Terrorism
pretty self explanatory!!! DUH!! 9/11
Growth
the increase of something.

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